Transparency and Accountability in Nine Years Basic Education (9YBE) Program in Rwanda


Transparency International Rwanda (TI-RW)

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Basic Project Information

Transparency International Rwanda sought to improve the quality and accessibility of free, basic education in Rwanda by increasing the transparency and accountability of government allocation and management of 9YBE program funds.


Project Summary


Enhance the accessibility and quality of basic education through more effective use of government resources

  • Collect evidence on the allocation and utilization of the 9YBE capitation grant to formulate policy recommendations for more effective use of these funds
  • Increase citizens’ participation and service providers’ accountability in the management of funds allocated to the 9YBE program


TI-RW implemented a series of three social accountability mechanisms to ensure the transparent and accountable use and management of funds under the Nine Year Basic Education Program (9YBE), focusing on the Capitation Grant (CG). The project utilized the following methods:

  • A Public Expenditure Tracking Survey (PETS) involved a desk review of policy documents, as well as a survey of parents, pupils, and teachers to determine whether bureaucratic capture, leakage of funds, or problems in the deployment of CG resources were taking place;
  • Citizen Report Cards (CRCs) utilized household surveys of pupils and parents, focus group discussions, and individual interviews with the Ministry of Education (MoE), head teachers, and district education directors to ascertain the proportions of CG recipients that had access to benefits and to gather quantitative feedback on users’ experience of the quality, adequacy, and efficiency of the 9YBE program; and
  • Community Score Cards (CSCs) utilized input tracking scorecards and community performance scorecards to evaluate citizen satisfaction with CG effectiveness, and generate mechanisms of direct feedback between service providers and users.

While TI-RW’s research revealed minimal leakages in 9YBE funds, community members and service providers identified issues with CG delivery, including delayed receipt of funds and poor compliance with ministerial guidelines on CG use. In some cases, parents were required to make additional contributions to cover their children’s education costs, as a result of insufficient CG funds for school expenses. Teachers and students also noted the limited availability of teaching materials, including textbooks, which often were shared between multiple students. To address these findings, citizens and service providers created joint action plans for more efficient use of CG resources. TI-RW also raised findings at the national level, through meetings with the MoE and its affiliated institution, the Rwanda Education Board (REB). Working with an umbrella coalition of education CSOs, TI-RW advocated for a variety of education issues to be slotted into the agenda of the government’s annual retreat, during which major policy decisions are made.

Use of Information Communication Technology



PETS: 1,508 schools from 15 districts across 5 provinces

CRC: 1,586 survey respondents from 9 districts across 5 provinces

CSC: 10 schools from 10 districts across 5 provinces

Target Population

Capitation Grant recipients, with particular focus on primary and secondary school students

Results Methodology

Self-reported results

Indicators Used

Not applicable

Reported Results

  • New infrastructure, including water tanks, latrines, classrooms, and playgrounds, observed at some target schools
  • Reduction of CG fund leakages and improved incentives to teachers
  • National government approved the addition of student feeding programs
  • Vice mayors in some districts pledged to implement CSCs in other schools
  • Additional funding was received by TR for supplemental social accountability activities
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