Improving Education Delivery in Public Primary Schools in Ghana


Ghana Center for Democratic Development (CDD-Ghana)

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Basic Project Information

CDD carried out a series of social accountability efforts in Ghana to assess and improve the quality of public primary education.


Project Summary


Improve the quality of education services

  • Improve the textbook distribution system and the pupil-text book ratio 
  • Increase providers’ awareness of parental and community experiences with education service delivery
  • Improve parental and community understanding of the nature and  scope of  gaps  in service delivery
  • Increase parental and community participation in school governance and empower them to advocate for changes in education services 


CDD-Ghana carried out a series of activities to assess and improve the quality of public primary education. The project was implemented in three stages:

  • The Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys (PETS) involved surveys of education public officials at the national, district, and school levels; as well as parent organizations and textbook publishers. Focus group discussions were carried out with pupils in a subset of schools. The objectives were to assess the pupil-text book ratio and identify any leakages, delays, or other irregularities in the delivery and management of textbooks.
  • The Citizen Report Card (CRC) was carried out in 6 districts to obtain and leverage feedback from citizens on their knowledge of education inputs and experience with service provision.
  • The Community Score Card (CSC) was designed to improve service delivery by increasing parental and community participation in school governance, providing communities with evidence for advocacy, and facilitating interactions between communities and service providers.

The study found that the official one textbook per pupil policy was not met in at least two-thirds of the schools with disadvantaged schools and regions suffering from greater leakages in book distribution. It also found that most schools did not have access ramps and hand rails to facilitate access for children with disabilities and that more than 50% of schools did not have library facilities.

CDD-Ghana undertook a number of activities to address these issues. In focus communities, it helped build permanent platforms for citizens, service providers, and government officials to share feedback about education services. In addition, the organization shared the gaps identified by the study with key stakeholders including the Ministry of Education, the Ghana Education Service, Parliament’s education committee, and donors as well as with CSOs working in the study’s region.

Use of Information Communication Technology

Yes - radio programming


PETS: 30 public primary schools across 6 districts in Central Region

CRC: 1,218 respondents across 58 villages in 6 districts in Central Region

CSC: 6 schools in 3 communities across 2 districts in Central Region

Target Population

Users of public primary education

Results Methodology

The evaluation, conducted by evaluation experts at CDD with support from STAR-Ghana, focused on five schools selected through purposive sampling. The assessment sought to qualify and quantify project impact, measuring project beneficiaries’ and key stakeholders’ perceptions of change. Data collection included a review of relevant secondary materials including project documents and research papers; key informant interviews and surveys with education policy makers, service providers, and citizens to understand how the project contributed to changes in attitude, understanding, and actions; and focus group discussions with pupils, parents, school teachers, PTA and SMC members to help contextualize the results of the surveys and quantitative data.

Indicators Used

Pupil-textbook ratio

Reported Results

  • Improved service delivery including better access to educational materials, infrastructure, numbers of teachers, rates of absenteeism, teachers’ performance, and academic performance
  • Increased citizen interest in, and demands for, improved education service delivery; improved ability to articulate and advocate for needs at the district level
  • Improved responsiveness from the District Education Office
  • Improved knowledge and awareness of the gaps and challenges in education service delivery and how to address them at the school level
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