Feedback for Improving the Quality of Education


Khmer Institute for National Development (KIND)

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Affiliated Network for Social Accountability – East Asia and Pacific (ANSA-EAP)

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Basic Project Information

KIND and ANSA-EAP sought to improve the availability and quality of secondary school textbooks through tracking their distribution and delivery, surveying students, and facilitating collaboration between communities and public officials to address problems.



Project Summary


Improve the quality of secondary education in Cambodia by increasing the availability of textbooks for students 


The KIND and ANSA-EAP project team undertook a three-part effort to increase the availability of textbooks after identifying the widespread diversion of textbooks for resale in markets. The project had three phases:

  • Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys (PETS) to track public resources for textbooks as well as the textbooks themselves from the national level all the way to the school level in order to identify leakages, delays, and inefficiencies. This included surveys of local public officials, as well as school leaders and staff.
  • A Citizen Report Card (CRC) to assess student access to textbooks, costs to acquire them, as well as perceptions of their quality.
  • A Social Audit including meetings that brought together education sector and local officials, as well as community representatives, teachers, and students. The meetings aimed to generate local awareness of problems with textbook provision, and to convey community feedback and suggestions to officials.  

The project found significant irregularities, delays, and additional costs involved with textbook provision, as well as concerns regarding textbook quality. To catalyze official action to address these issues, KIND and ANSA-EAP worked actively with the newly formed multi-stakeholder working group on textbooks – which includes national government officials, key sector international donors, and NGOs – to ensure follow-up action, and has held weekly radio programs aimed at raising public awareness. They have also tracked the government's response to ensure it follows through on new committments to improve textbook quality and reduce theft and resale. That response has included new textbook quality guidelines, an official Education Ministry announcement that stealing and reselling textbooks is a punishable offense, and an order for the Ministry of Interior to cooperate with local authorities to stamp out textbook-related corruption. 

Use of Information Communication Technology



PETS: 33 upper secondary schools in 15 districts spread across 3 provinces and 1 city

CRC: 489 student respondents

Social Audits in 3 provinces and 1 city 

Target Population

Secondary school children in grades 10-12


No formal evaluation conducted

Results Methodology

Self-reported results

Indicators Used

Not applicable

Reported Results

  • Increased media coverage on issue and textbook-related challenges
  • Formation of a multi-stakeholder working group on textbook provision
  • Increased Ministry of Youth, Education and Sport (MoEYS) oversight and tracking of textbooks
  • New goverment guidelines outlining quality standards for textbooks
  • A government announcement that textbook theft and sale in markets would be a punishable offense, and labels on textbooks reinforcing this message
  • A government order for the Ministry of Interior (MoI) and local authorities to cooperate to prevent textbook improprieties, and to prosecute them when they are discovered; and a formal agreement between MoI and the local authorities to follow through on the order
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