Encouraging Efficiency and Accountability of Budget for Free Education in Indonesia


Article 33 Indonesia

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Basic Project Information

Article 33 sought to improve the effectiveness of primary public education spending in Indonesia and help realize free education for all by identifying key budget allocation gaps.



Project Summary


  • Achieve 100 percent enrollment of primary school children by 2015 through effective education budget allocation
  • Produce research-backed recommendations on how to improve the effectiveness and accountability of education spending
  • Improve civil society capacity to monitor the national education budget
  • Facilitate dialogue between civil society actors and decision-makers around issues of effective budget allocation


In order to help achieve universal free education in Indonesia by 2015, Article 33 analyzed and advocated for improvements to the use of the national primary education budget. The project consisted of two phases:

  • Analysis of the Regional Government Budget (APBD) within ten districts and public expenditure tracking surveys of ten schools within one district;
  • National level advocacy and establishment of an education working group.

The first phase revealed that limited government supervision and control over education spending led to a lack of accountability in budget spending, as well as inefficiencies in budget allocation, with high percentages of school budgets going to teacher salaries rather than facilities and infrastructure. Through a national level conference, Article 33, along with other members of the education working group, presented these findings to government in order to produce recommendations and government commitments for improving and monitoring education spending.

Use of Information Communication Technology



Regional government budget study: 10 districts/cities in 5 provinces

School expenditure analysis: 10 public schools within 1 city

Target Population

Primary school children


No formal evaluation conducted

Results Methodology

Self-reported results

Indicators Used

Not applicable

Reported Results

  • The national Ministry of Education issued a road map for free basic education and increased the School Operational Assistance (BOS) scheme to meet nearly 100 percent of actual need, up from 65 to 70 percent
  • New regulations were enacted to limit leakages in the BOS scheme and shift funds away from teacher salaries to other purposes*

*Note that Article 33 Indonesia does not claim that either of these results were a direct result of just their work on budget allocation, but rather a result of the combined efforts of the education working group.

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